Siemens SIMATIC S7-1500

As of January 10, 2023, CISA will no longer be updating ICS security advisories for Siemens product vulnerabilities beyond the initial advisory. For the most up-to-date information on vulnerabilities in this advisory, please see Siemens’ ProductCERT Security Advisories (CERT Services | Services | Siemens Global). 

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1. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

  • CVSS v3 7.8
  • ATTENTION: Exploitable remotely/low attack complexity
  • Vendor: Siemens
  • Equipment: SIMATIC S7-1500
  • Vulnerabilities: Improper Check for Unusual or Exceptional Conditions, Improper Input Validation, Use After Free, Out-of-bounds Write

2. RISK EVALUATION

Successful exploitation of these vulnerabilities could allow an attack to cause a heap-based buffer overflow, local privilege escalation, kernel information leak, and a denial-of-service condition.

3. TECHNICAL DETAILS

3.1 AFFECTED PRODUCTS

The following Siemens products are affected:

  • Siemens SIMATIC S7-1500 TM MFP (GNU/Linux subsystem): All versions

3.2 Vulnerability Overview

3.2.1 IMPROPER CHECK FOR UNUSUAL OR EXCEPTIONAL CONDITIONS CWE-754

Applications that use the functions DH_generate_key() to generate an X9.42 DH key may experience long delays. Likewise, applications that use DH_check_pub_key(), DH_check_pub_key_ex() or EVP_PKEY_public_check() to check an X9.42 DH key or X9.42 DH parameters may experience long delays. Where the key or parameters that are being checked have been obtained from an untrusted source, this may lead to a denial-of-service condition. An application that calls DH_generate_key() or DH_check_pub_key() and supplies a key or parameters obtained from an untrusted source could be vulnerable to a denial-of-service attack. DH_generate_key() and DH_check_pub_key() are also called by a number of other OpenSSL functions. Also vulnerable are the OpenSSL pkey command line application when using the “-pubcheck” option, as well as the OpenSSL genpkey command line application. The OpenSSL SSL/TLS implementation is not affected by this issue. The OpenSSL 3.0 and 3.1 FIPS providers are not affected by this issue.

CVE-2023-5678 has been assigned to this vulnerability. A CVSS v3 base score of 5.3 has been assigned; the CVSS vector string is (CVSS:3.1/AV:N/AC:L/PR:N/UI:N/S:U/C:N/I:N/A:L).

3.2.2 IMPROPER INPUT VALIDATION CWE-20

An out-of-bounds read vulnerability was found in the NVMe-oF/TCP subsystem in the Linux kernel. This issue may allow a remote attacker to send a crafted TCP packet, triggering a heap-based buffer overflow that results in kmalloc data being printed and potentially leaked to the kernel ring buffer (dmesg).

CVE-2023-6121 has been assigned to this vulnerability. A CVSS v3 base score of 4.3 has been assigned; the CVSS vector string is (CVSS:3.1/AV:N/AC:L/PR:L/UI:N/S:U/C:L/I:N/A:N).

3.2.3 USE AFTER FREE CWE-416

A use-after-free vulnerability in the Linux kernel’s netfilter: nf_tables component can be exploited to achieve local privilege escalation. The function nft_pipapo_walk did not skip inactive elements during set walk which could lead double deactivations of PIPAPO (Pile Packet Policies) elements, leading to use-after-free. We recommend upgrading past commit 317eb9685095678f2c9f5a8189de698c5354316a.

CVE-2023-6817 has been assigned to this vulnerability. A CVSS v3 base score of 7.8 has been assigned; the CVSS vector string is (CVSS:3.1/AV:L/AC:L/PR:L/UI:N/S:U/C:H/I:H/A:H).

3.2.4 OUT-OF-BOUNDS WRITE CWE-787

A heap out-of-bounds write vulnerability in the Linux kernel’s Performance Events system component can be exploited to achieve local privilege escalation. A perf_event’s read_size can overflow, leading to a heap out-of-bounds increment or write in perf_read_group(). We recommend upgrading past commit 382c27f4ed28f803b1f1473ac2d8db0afc795a1b.

CVE-2023-6931 has been assigned to this vulnerability. A CVSS v3 base score of 7.8 has been assigned; the CVSS vector string is (CVSS:3.1/AV:L/AC:L/PR:L/UI:N/S:U/C:H/I:H/A:H).

3.2.5 USE AFTER FREE CWE-416

A use-after-free vulnerability in the Linux kernel’s ipv4: igmp component can be exploited to achieve local privilege escalation. A race condition can be exploited to cause a timer to be mistakenly registered on a RCU read locked object which is freed by another thread. We recommend upgrading past commit e2b706c691905fe78468c361aaabc719d0a496f1.

CVE-2023-6932 has been assigned to this vulnerability. A CVSS v3 base score of 7.8 has been assigned; the CVSS vector string is (CVSS:3.1/AV:L/AC:L/PR:L/UI:N/S:U/C:H/I:H/A:H).

3.2.6 IMPROPER INPUT VALIDATION CWE-20

The Linux kernel before 6.5.4 has an es1 use-after-free in fs/ext4/extents_status.c, related to ext4_es_insert_extent.

CVE-2023-45898 has been assigned to this vulnerability. A CVSS v3 base score of 7.8 has been assigned; the CVSS vector string is (CVSS:3.1/AV:L/AC:L/PR:L/UI:N/S:U/C:H/I:H/A:H).

3.2.7 USE AFTER FREE CWE-416

A use-after-free issue was found in igmp_start_timer in net/ipv4/igmp.c in the network sub-component in the Linux Kernel. This flaw allows a local user to observe a refcnt use-after-free issue when receiving an igmp query packet, leading to a kernel information leak.

CVE-2023-6121 has been assigned to this vulnerability. A CVSS v3 base score of 5.5 has been assigned; the CVSS vector string is (CVSS:3.1/AV:L/AC:L/PR:L/UI:N/S:U/C:H/I:N/A:N).

3.2.8 IMPROPER INPUT VALIDATION CWE-20

Processing a maliciously formatted PKCS12 file may lead OpenSSL to crash leading to a potential denial-of-service attack Impact summary: Applications loading files in the PKCS12 format from untrusted sources might terminate abruptly. A file in PKCS12 format can contain certificates and keys and may come from an untrusted source. The PKCS12 specification allows certain fields to be NULL, but OpenSSL does not correctly check for this case. This can lead to a NULL pointer dereference that results in OpenSSL crashing. If an application processes PKCS12 files from an untrusted source using the OpenSSL APIs then that application will be vulnerable to this issue. OpenSSL APIs that are vulnerable to this are: PKCS12_parse(), PKCS12_unpack_p7data(), PKCS12_unpack_p7encdata(), PKCS12_unpack_authsafes() and PKCS12_newpass(). We have also fixed a similar issue in SMIME_write_PKCS7(). However, since this function is related to writing data, we do not consider it security significant. The FIPS modules in 3.2, 3.1, and 3.0 are not affected by this issue.

CVE-2024-0727 has been assigned to this vulnerability. A CVSS v3 base score of 5.5 has been assigned; the CVSS vector string is (CVSS:3.1/AV:L/AC:L/PR:N/UI:R/S:U/C:N/I:N/A:H).

3.3 BACKGROUND

  • CRITICAL INFRASTRUCTURE SECTORS: Critical Manufacturing
  • COUNTRIES/AREAS DEPLOYED: Worldwide
  • COMPANY HEADQUARTERS LOCATION: Germany

3.4 RESEARCHER

Siemens reported these vulnerabilities to CISA.

4. MITIGATIONS

Siemens has identified the following specific workarounds and mitigations users can apply to reduce risk:

  • Only build and run applications from trusted sources.

As a general security measure, Siemens recommends protecting network access to devices with appropriate mechanisms. To operate the devices in a protected IT environment, Siemens recommends configuring the environment according to Siemens’ operational guidelines for industrial security and following recommendations in the product manuals.

Additional information on industrial security by Siemens can be found on the Siemens industrial security webpage.

For more information see the associated Siemens security advisory SSA-265688 in HTML and CSAF.

CISA recommends users take defensive measures to minimize the risk of exploitation of these vulnerabilities, such as:

  • Minimize network exposure for all control system devices and/or systems, ensuring they are not accessible from the internet.
  • Locate control system networks and remote devices behind firewalls and isolating them from business networks.
  • When remote access is required, use more secure methods, such as Virtual Private Networks (VPNs). Recognize VPNs may have vulnerabilities, should be updated to the most recent version available, and are only as secure as the connected devices.

CISA reminds organizations to perform proper impact analysis and risk assessment prior to deploying defensive measures.

CISA also provides a section for control systems security recommended practices on the ICS webpage on cisa.gov. Several CISA products detailing cyber defense best practices are available for reading and download, including Improving Industrial Control Systems Cybersecurity with Defense-in-Depth Strategies.

CISA encourages organizations to implement recommended cybersecurity strategies for proactive defense of ICS assets.

Additional mitigation guidance and recommended practices are publicly available on the ICS webpage at cisa.gov in the technical information paper, ICS-TIP-12-146-01B–Targeted Cyber Intrusion Detection and Mitigation Strategies.

Organizations observing suspected malicious activity should follow established internal procedures and report findings to CISA for tracking and correlation against other incidents.

CISA also recommends users take the following measures to protect themselves from social engineering attacks:

No known public exploitation specifically targeting these vulnerabilities has been reported to CISA at this time.

5. UPDATE HISTORY

  • April 11, 2024: Initial Publication

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