GHSA-vcc3-rw6f-jv97 (nokogiri): Use-after-free in libxml2 via Nokogiri::XML::Reader

Ruby Security Advisory

### Summary

Nokogiri upgrades its dependency libxml2 as follows:
– v1.15.6 upgrades libxml2 to 2.11.7 from 2.11.6
– v1.16.2 upgrades libxml2 to 2.12.5 from 2.12.4

libxml2 v2.11.7 and v2.12.5 address the following vulnerability:

CVE-2024-25062 / https://cve.mitre.org/cgi-bin/cvename.cgi?name=CVE-2024-25062
– described at https://gitlab.gnome.org/GNOME/libxml2/-/issues/604
– patched by https://gitlab.gnome.org/GNOME/libxml2/-/commit/92721970

Please note that this advisory only applies to the CRuby implementation
of Nokogiri, and only if the packaged libraries are being used. If
you’ve overridden defaults at installation time to use system libraries
instead of packaged libraries, you should instead pay attention to
your distro’s libxml2 release announcements.

JRuby users are not affected.

### Severity

The Nokogiri maintainers have evaluated this as **Moderate**.

### Impact

From the CVE description, this issue applies to the `xmlTextReader`
module (which underlies `Nokogiri::XML::Reader`):

> When using the XML Reader interface with DTD validation and
> XInclude expansion enabled, processing crafted XML documents
> can lead to an xmlValidatePopElement use-after-free.

### Mitigation

Upgrade to Nokogiri `~> 1.15.6` or `>= 1.16.2`.

Users who are unable to upgrade Nokogiri may also choose a more
complicated mitigation: compile and link Nokogiri against patched
external libxml2 libraries which will also address these same issues.

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